Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. There are different types of environmental pollution including air pollution, land pollution, noise pollution and water pollution Pollution is recognized as one of the major threats to sustainable development because it has a direct influence on the quality of people’s lives. It is therefore important to put in place adequate measures to combat growing source and extent of pollution in order to maintain healthy societies, stimulate tourism and sustain development and new investments.


Waste management refers to the generation, prevention, characterization, monitoring, treatment, handling, reuse and residual disposition of solid wastes. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.

The disposal and treatment of waste has the potential of producing emissions The 4-K Manual – A Guide for 4-K Clubs in Kenya of several greenhouse gases (GHGs), which contribute to global climate change. The most significant GHG gas produced from waste is methane.

Types of waste management

  • Composting (rotting): this is mainly for organic materials such as food scraps, yard waste and agricultural waste. Composting is the natural biological breakdown of organic material
  • Combustion (burning): releases carbon dioxide which is a less potent GHG. Energy released during
  • combustion can be harnessed and used as an alternative source of power, which results in reduced use of fossil fuel therefore reducing emission of GHG
  • Land filling (dispose by burying): this is the most common waste management practice. The carbon from un-decomposed materials remains trapped in the landfill and is not released into the atmosphere
  • Recycling: the most environmentally safe form of waste management. In this process, the materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products for use